October 2017
ISSN 2148-7278
Volume: 3 Number: 4

UDEEEWANA's Journal GLOKALde is open access journal that provides rapid turn around in review and publication (quarterly) of articles in various subject areas of distance education.

We welcome the submission of manuscripts that meets the general criteria of significance and scientific excellence. Papers will be published approximately upon acceptance byGLOKALde Editors Electronic submission of manuscripts is strongly encouraged, provided that the text, tables, and figures are included in a single Microsoft Word (MS-word) file (preferably in Arial font). Allsubmissions are should be sent to [email protected]

Submit Manuscripts
Submission of manuscript can be made via links on the different journal home pages. An Acknowledgement letter with manuscript tracking number will be mailed to the corresponding author immediately. (Note: We will only accept papers submitted Microsoft office wordformat (.doc and .docx).

Article Types
Types of manuscripts for submission includes:

Regular/Research Articles
These should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly.

Short Communications
A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length papers. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages (about 6 to 12 manuscript pages) in length.

Submissions of book, conference or case reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome and encouraged. Reviews should be concise and no longer than 4-6 printed pages (about 12 to 18 manuscript pages). Reviews are also peer-reviewed.Critical Reviews, Surveys, Opinions, Commentaries and EssaysSubmissions of surveys, opinions, commentaries, essays and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome and encouraged.

Review Process
All manuscripts are double blind reviewed by an editor and members of the Editorial Board or qualified peer-reviewers. Decisions will be made as rapidly as possible, and the journal strives to send reviewers' evaluation to authors within 4 weeks. The editorial board will re-evaluate manuscripts that are accepted pending revision. ItJournals to publish manuscripts within 8 weeks after submission.

Regular/Research Articles
All portions of the manuscript must be typeddouble-spaced and all pages numbered starting from the title page.

The Title should be a brief phrase describing the contents of the paper. The Title Page should include the authors' full names and affiliations, the name of the corresponding author along with phone, fax and E-mail information. Present addresses of authors should appear as a footnote.

The abstract should be informative and completely self-explanatory, briefly present the topic, state the scope of the experiments, indicate significant data, and point out major findings and conclusions. The Abstract should be 100 to 200 words in length.. Complete sentences and syntax, active verbs, and the third person should be used, and the abstract should be written in the past tense. Standard nomenclature should be used and abbreviations should be avoided. No literature should be cited.

Following the abstract, about 3 to 10key words that will provide indexing references should be listed.

A list of non-standardabbreviations should be added. In general, non-standard abbreviations should be used only when the full term is very long and used often. Each abbreviation should be spelled out and introduced in parentheses the first time it is used in the text. Only recommended SI units should be used. Authors should use the solidus presentation (mg/ml). Standard abbreviations (such as ATP and DNA) need not be defined.

The Introduction should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. It should be understandable to colleagues from a broad range of diverse disciplines.

Materials and methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited, and important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail.

Results should be presented with clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.

The Discussion should interpret the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. State the conclusions in a few sentences at the end of the paper. The Results and Discussion sections can include subheadings, and when appropriate, both sections can be combined.

The Acknowledgments of people, grants, funds, etc should be brief.

Please provides scholarly information about author/s of 100 to 150 words must also be submitted . Leave 2 blank lines after bio-data with phograph and full contact addresses.

Tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be on a separate page, numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The details of the methods used in the experiments should preferably be described in the legend instead of in the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text.

Figure legends should be typed in numerical order on a separate sheet. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution GIF, TIFF, JPEG or Powerpoint before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file.

Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word. Use Arabic numerals to designate figures and upper case letters for their parts (Figure 1). Begin each legend with a title and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text.

References: In the text, a reference identified by means of an author's surname should be followed by the date of the reference in parentheses. When there are more than two authors, only the first author's name should be mentioned, followed by 'et al'. In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like 'a' and 'b' after the date to distinguish the works.

Reference must conform to the style of the Publication Manual of the APA5th Edition. Start the reference with the sequence "Reference:" (without the quotes) in 10 point bold-face and leave 1 blank lines after "Reference".

Surname, initial name/s. (Year). Name et al. (Year), (Name, Year), (Name1 and Name2, Year), (Name, Year; Name, Yeara,b; Name, Year1,year2), (Name et al., Year) References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order.

Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list but should only be mentioned in the article text. Journal names are abbreviated according to Chemical Abstracts. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Bates, A. W. (2005). Technology, E-Learning and Distance Education. London: Routledge.

Chaudhary, S. V. S and Panda, S (2005). Educational Television and Teleconferencing. In Reddi, U.V., and Mishra, S. (Eds), Educational Media in Asia: Perspectives on Distance Education. Vencour: COL.

Short Communications Short Communications are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length papers. The items of manuscript preparation listed above apply to Short Communications with the following differences:

  • Abstracts are limited to 100-150 words;
  • Instead of a separate Materials and Methods section, experimental procedures may be incorporated into Figure Legends and Table footnotes;
  • Results and Discussion should be combined into a single section.

Proofs and Reprints
Electronic proofs will be sent (e-mail attachment) to the corresponding author as a PDF file. Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. With the exception of typographical or minor clerical errors, no changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage. Because EJBME will be published freely online to attract a wide audience), authors will have free electronic access to the full text (in both HTML and PDF) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file from which they can print unlimited copies of their articles.

Citations in the Text sholuıd be:

  • Follow the author-date- page number format ( see example 1).
  • If you are referring to an idea from another work but not directly quoting material, or making entire reference to an entire book, article or other work, only make reference to the author and year of publication (see example 2).
  • If there is no author to cite, such as when you are citing a web page that lists no author use an abbreviated version of the title of the page in quotation marks (see example 3).
  • Italicize the titles of longer words such as books, edited collections, movies, documentaries, or albumes.
  • Put quotation marks around the titles of works such as journal articles, articles from edited collections, television shows and song titles.
  • If a work has two authors, cite both last names every time the reference in your text.
  • Indicate direct quotations of fewer than 40 words , enclose the quotation within double quotation marks (see example1).
  • Start the quotations longer than 40 words on a new line, indented five space from the lef margin and omit quotation marks (see example 4).
  • If you are citing a work that has no author, no date, and no page numbers, use the first few words from the title, then the abbreviation n.d. (for "no date"), (see example 5).
  • If you are using a quotation that uses quotation marks as a short quotation, use single quotation marks to set off material that was originally enclosed in quotation marks. If you are using a quotation in block quote, use double quotation marks.
  • Personal communications, such as e-mail messages to you, private interviews that you conducted with another person should be referred to in text citations but not in reference list (see example 6).

Example 1
She stated, "Students often had difficulty using APA style," (Jones, 1998, p.199), but she did not offer an explanations as to why. According to Jones (1998), "Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time" (p.199). Jones (1998) found "Students often had difficulty using APA style" (p.199); what implications does this have for teachers?

Example 2
Jones (1998) compared student performance…
In a recent study of student performance (Jones, 1998), …
In 1998, Jones compared student performance…

Example 3
A similar study was done of students learning to format research papers
("Using APA 5").

Example 4
Jones 's 1993 study found the following:
Students often had difficulty using APA style, especially when it was their first time citing sources. This difficulty could be attributed to the fact that many students failed to purchase a style manual or to ask their teacher for help. (p.199)

Example 5.
In another study of students and research decisions, it was discovered that students succeeded with tutoring ("Tutoring and APA," n.d.).

Example 6.
A. P. Smith also claimed that many of her students had difficulties with APA style (personal communication, November 3, 2002).

  • References should be placed on a different page.
  • Cite references in alphabetical order by first author'surname and then his/her name.
  • References by a single author precede multi-authored works by same first author, regardless of date
  • List works by the same author(s) in chronological order, beginning with the earliest date of publication. If author has two works in same year, place in alphabetical order by first significant word in title. These works should be lettered consecutively (e.g. 2004a, 2004b).
  • Use "&" instead of "and" when listing multiple authors of a single work
  • If no author is given for a particular source, begin with and alphabetize by using the title of the work, which will be listed in place of the author.
  • All lines after the first line of each entry in your reference list should be indented from the left margin.
  • When referring to any work that is not a journal, such as a book, article, or web page, capitalize only the first letter of the first word of a title and subtitle, the first word after a colon or a dash in the title and proper nouns. Do not capitalize the first letter of the second word in a hyphenated compound word.
  • Capitalize all major words in journal titles
  • Italicize titles of longer works such as books and journals.


Berndt, T. J. (1996). Exploring the effects of friendship quality on social development. In W. M. Bukowski, A. F. Newcomb, & W. W. Hartup, (Eds.), The company they keep: Friendship in childhood and adolescence. (pp. 346-365). Cambridge, Uk: Cambridge University Press.

Berndt, T. J. (2002). Friendship quality and social development. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 11, 7-10.

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1994). Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 66, 1034-1048.

Wegener, D. T., & Petty, R. E. (1995), Flexible correction processes in social judgment: The role of naive theories in corrections for perceived bias. Journal of Personality & social Psychology, 68, 36-51.

Berndt, T. J. (1999). Friends' influence on students' adjustment to school. Educational Psychologist, 34, 15-28.

Berndt, T. J. & Keefe, K. (1995). Friends' influence on adolescents' adjustment to school. Child Development, 66, 1312-1329.

Wegener, D. T., Kerr, N. L., Fleming, M. A., & Petty, R. E. (2000). Flexible corrections of juror judgments: Implications for jury instructions. Psychology, Public Policy, & Law, 6, 629-654.

Wegener, D. T., Petty, R. E., & Klein, D. J. (1994). Effects of mood on high elaboration attitude change: The mediating role of likelihood judgments. European Journal of Social Psycjology, 24, 25-43.

Berndt, T. J. (1981a). Age changes over time in prosocial intentions and behavior between friends. Development Psychology, 17, 408-416.

Berndt, T. J. (1981b). Effects of friendship on prosocial intentions and behavior. Child Development, 52, 636-643.

An article in a periodical (e.g., a journal, newspaper, or magazine)
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of periodical, volume number, pages.

A nonperiodical (e.g., book, report, brochure, or audiovisual media)
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Part of a nonperiodical (e.g., a book chapter or an article in a collection)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Year of publication). Title of chapter. In A. Editor & B. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (pages of chapter). Location: Publisher.

Article in an Internet Periodical
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of journal, volume number ( issue number if available). Retrieved month day, year, from http://Web address.

Nonperiodical Internet Document (e.g., a Web page report)
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. Retrieved month date, year, from http: //Web address.

Part of Nonperiodical Internet Document
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of article. In Title of book or larger document (chapter or section number). Retrieved from http://Web address.

Journal article, more than six authors
Harris, M., Karper, E., Stacks, G., Hoffman, D., DeNiro, R., Cruz, P., et al. (2001). Writing labs and the Hollywood connection. Journal of Film and Writing, 44(3),213- 245.

Work discussed in secondary source
Coltheart, M., Curtis, B., Atkins, P., & Haller, M. (1993). Models of reading aloud: Dual- route and parallel-distributed-processing approaches. Psychological Review, 100, 589-608. In Seidenberg and McClelland's study (as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993), …

Magazine, Bulletin article, one author
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28- 31.

Calfee, R. C., & Valencia, R. R. (1991). APA guide to preparing manuscripts for journal publication. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

An article or chapter of a book
O'Neil, J. M., & Egan, J. (1992). Men's and women's gender role journeys: Metaphor for healing, transition, and transformation. In B. R. Wainrib (Ed.), Gender issues across the life cycle (pp. 107-123). New York: Springer.

A government publication
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

A brochure
Research and Training Center on Independent Living. (1993).Guidelines for reporting and writing about people with disabilities (4th ed.) [Brochure]. Lawrence, KS: Author.

A book or article with no author or editor named
Merriam-Webster's collegiate dictionary (10th ed.) . (1993).Springfield, MA: Merriam-Webster. New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (1993, July 15). The Washington Post, p.A12

A translated work and/ or a republished work
Laplace, P.S. (1951). A philosophical essay on probabilities (F.W. Truscott & F. L. Emory, Trans.) . New York: Dover. (Original work published 1814)

A review of a book, conference, workshop, database, etc.
Baumeister, R. F. (1993). Exposing the self-knowledge myth [Review of the book The self-knower: A hero under control]. Contemporary Psychology, 38, 466-467.

An entry in an encyclopedia
Bergmann, P. G. (1993). Relativity. In The new encyclopedia britannica (Vol, 26, pp. 501-508). Chicago: Encyclopedia Britannica

A print journal or newspaper article retrieved from an online database
Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3). Retrieved February 20, 2003,from PsycARTICLES database.

An online journal article
Kenneth, I. A. (2000). A Buddhist response to the nature of human rights. Journal of Buddhist Ethics, 8(4) . Retrieved February 20, 2001, from http://www.cac.psu.edu/jbe/twocont.html

Chapter or section of an online document
The Foundation for a Better World. (2000). Pollution and banana cream pie. In Great chefs cook with chlorofluorocarbons and carbon monoxide (Chap. 3). Retrieved July 13, 2001, from http://www.bamm.com/cream/pollution/bananas.htm

Message posted to an online newsgroup, from, workshop, or discussion group
Frook, B. D. (1999, July 23). New inventions in the cyberworld of toylandia [Msg 25]. Message posted http://groups.earthlink.com/forum/messages/0025.html Harris, M. (Producer), & Turley, M. J. (Director). (2002). Writing Labs: A History

Submission of a manuscript implies that the work described has not been published before (except in the form of an abstract or as part of a published lecture, or thesis) that it is not under consideration for publication elsewhere; that if and when the manuscript is accepted for publication, the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright to the GLOKALde Details are given in under copytright item too.

Fees and Charges
Authors are not required to pay any for a handling fee, for editing or something else.

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